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REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

BLOOM, Allan. The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Touchstone Book, 1987.

BURNHAM, William. Introduction to the Law and Legal System of the United States. 3.ed. St. Paul, MN: West Group, 2002.

DRESSLER, Joshua. Understanding Criminal Law. New York: Matthew Bender & Co., 1987.

FARNSWORTH, E. Allan. An Introduction to the Legal System of the United States. New York: Oceana, 1996.

FRIEDMAN, Lawrence M. A History of American Law. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973.

GIFIS, Steven H. Law Dictionary. 4.ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s, 1996.

GRAM, Dewey. The Life of David Gale. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.

HALL, Kermit L. (ed.) The Oxford Companion to American Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

JOHNSEN, Julia E. Capital Punishment. New York: The H.W. Wilson Company, 1939.

KNAPPMAN, Edward (ed.) Great American Trials - From Salem Witchcraft to Rodney King. Detroit: New England Publishing, 1994.

LATZER, Barry. Death Penalty Cases. New York: Butterworth Heinemann, 2002.

LOEWY, Arnold H. Loewy. Criminal Law. St. Paul: West, 1987.

MAY, John Wilder. The Law of Crimes. Littleton: Fred B. Rothman, 1985.

MORTIMER, John. The Second Rumpole Omnibus. London: Penguin Books, 1987.

SANTOS, Boaventura de Sousa, Toward a New Common Sense. New York/London: Routledge, 1995.

UNGER, Roberto Mangabeira. Law in Modern Society. New York : Free Press, 1977.

WALLACE, Harvey e ROBERSON, Cliff. Principles of Criminal Law. White Plains: Longman, 1996.

WEBER, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London : Routledge, 1997. Tradução para o inglês de Tarcott Parsons.


Notas

01 Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Toward a New Common Sense, p. 340 e ss.

02 Steven H. Gifis, Law Dictionary, p. 198.

03 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 319.

04 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 328.

05 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 304.

06 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 61.

07 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 447.

08 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 47.

09 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 310.

10 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 514 e 382.

11 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 382.

12 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 193.

13 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 166.

14 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 54.

15 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 59.

16 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 412.

17 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 477.

18 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 347.

19 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 254.

20 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 159.

21 John Wilder May, The Law of Crimes, p. 1. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Crime is a violation or neglect of legal duty, of so much public importance that the law, either common or statute, takes notice of and punishes it.

22 William Burnham, Introduction to the Law and Legal System of the United States, p. 524.

23 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

24 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, Principles of Criminal Law, p. 8 e ss.

25 Lawrence M. Friedman, A History of American Law, p. 503.

26 Características, anedotas e fragmentos desse modelo ingles são vistas no saboroso e festejado livro The Second Rumpole Omnibus, de John Mortimer.

27 Joshua Dressler, Understanding Criminal Law, p. 13.

28 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 525.

29 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 13. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. This code was developed by a group of judges, lawyers, and scholars and is designed to reflect in general the criminal law of the United States. The project was started in 1952. The rationale for the model code was that states enacted criminal laws in a piecemeal fashion, often based on public perceptions of need without a thorough examination of the situation. The project was basically completed in 1962 after 13 tentative drafts. Since 1962, approximately two-thirds of the states have adopted new criminal codes greatly influenced by the Model Penal Code. While some states have adopted this code with slight changes, other states refer to it when redrafting criminal laws.

30 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

31 . Allan Farnsworth, An Introduction to the Legal System of the United States, p. 168.

32 Joshua Dressler, op. cit., p. 25.

33 Constituição dos Estados Unidos da América, Artigo I, §§ 9 e 10.

34 Joshua Dressler, op. cit., p. 26.

35 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 526.

36 Joshua Dressler, op. cit., loc. cit.

37 Joshua Dressler, op. cit., loc. cit.

38 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

39 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 526.

40 Casos de traição foram famosos no desate da segunda guerra mundial. Entre eles, o julgamento de Iva Ikuko Toguri, chamada de Tokio Rose, acusada de colaborar com japoneses e condenada a dez anos de prisão e multa de dez mil dólares. O caso foi julgado em 1949. Stephen G. Christianson, Tokio Rose Trial, in Edward W. Knappman, Great American Trials, p. 450 e ss.

41 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 5.

42 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

43 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

44 Arnold H. Loewy, Criminal Law in a Nutshell, p. 119.

45 Arnold H. Loewy, op. cit., p. 140 e ss.

46 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

47 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 33. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Kitty Genovese was murdered in New York City in March 1964. She was killed on the sidewalk in front of her apartment in Queens. The attack started at 3:20 A.M. and continued until she died some 35 minutes later. During this period, at least 37 law-abiding citizens watched the killer stalk and stab her three times. Twice during the series of assaults on her, lights turned on in a nearby bedrooms interrupted the killer and frightened him off. Each time he returned to continue the assaults. Despite her cries for help, not one of the 37 citizens attempted to help- not one even called the police during the attacks, although one called after her death. When asked why he did not call the police, one man stated, " I was tired". Since none of the 37 citizens had a legal duty to help, their inaction, while morally wrong, was not criminal behavior.

48 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

49 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 31.

50 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 32.

51 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 527.

52 370 U.S. 660 (1962).

53 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 527.

54 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 20.

55 Willliam Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

56 Harvey Burnham e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 35.

57 Harvey Burnham e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

58 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

59 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

60 Stephen G. Christianson, Cipollone vs. Liggett Group, in Edward W. Knappman, Great American Trials, p. 754 e ss.

61 Stephen G. Christianson, op. cit., loc. cit.

62 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

63 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 530.

64 Harvey Burnham e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 42.

65 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

66 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

67 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 531.

68 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 532.

69 Edward M. Wise, Criminal Law, in David S. Clark e Tugrul Ansay, Introduction to the Law of the United States, p. 153.

70 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

71 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 533.

72 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 105. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Murder is the most serious of the homicide classifications. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, one murder is committed in the United States every 26 minutes. When we think of homicide, we automatically recall the more famous killers in our history. Early history tells of Cain killing his brother Abel, while John Wilkes Booth earned his place in history by assassinating President Abraham Lincoln.

73 Richard K. Sherwin, When Law Goes Pop, p. 171 e ss.

74 Michael Moore, Stupid White Men, p. 76.

75 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 112.

76 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

77 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

78 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

79 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

80 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

81 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

82 William Burnham, op.cit. loc. cit.

83 Edward M.Wise, op. cit., p. 154.

84 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

85 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 117.

86 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 121.

87 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 126.

88 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

89 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 534.

90 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 201.

91 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

92 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 202.

93 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

94 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

95 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op.cit. loc. cit.

96 Steven H. Gifis, op. cit., p. 32.

97 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

98 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 214.

99 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 169.

100 Edward M. Wise, op. cit., p. 155.

101 Edward M. Wise, op. cit., loc. cit.

102 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 188.

103 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

104 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 192.

105 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

10.6 William Burnham, op.cit.loc. cit.

107 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 233.

108 Thomas C. Smith, U.S. vs. Hoffa, in Edward W. Knappman, op. cit., p. 512 e ss. Hoffa foi representado no cinema por Jack Nicholson, em interessante filme sobre corrupção e sindicalismo nos Estados Unidos.

109ABSCAM Trials, Colin Evans, in Edward W. Knappman, op. cit., p. 699 e ss.

110 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 535.

111USA Patriot Act, 26 de outubro de 2001.

112 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 5.

113 Ellen S. Podgor, White Collar Crime, p. 2.

114 No falar norte-americano contemporâneo os trabalhos de colarinho branco (white collar) são as ocupações melhores remuneradas, nos bancos, nas corporações, nas empresas, no governo. Os trabalhos mais simples, manuais, odd jobs, são identificados como de colarinho azul (blue collar).

115 Ellen S. Podgor, op. cit., p. 154 e ss.

116 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 160.

117 Ronald J. Bacigal, Assault and Battery, in Kermit L. Hall (ed.), The Oxford Companion to American Law, p. 43.

118 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

119 Ronald J. Bacigal, op. cit., loc. cit.

120 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., loc. cit.

121 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 164. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Several years ago, in California, Terry Singleton kidnapped a young girl, drove her to a desert area, sexually assaulted her, then cut off both of her arms and left her for dead. She survived and lived to testify against her assailant, with the result that he was sentenced to a long term in state prison. Unfortunately, this crime still occurs in our society and can have long-term emotional and physical consequences for the victim.

122 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 535. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. The common law defined rape as sexual penetration by a man of a woman who is not his wife, which is accomplished through force or otherwise without her consent.

123Model Penal Code, § 213.1 (1).

124 Joshua Dressler, op. cit., p. 520. Tradução e adaptação livre do autor. Rape is a sexual invasion of the woman’s body in which her private, personal inner space is violated without her consent.

125 Edward M. Wise, op. cit., p. 155.

126 Edward M. Wise, op. cit., loc. cit.

127 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 137.

128 Thomas C. Smith, Central Park Jogger Rape Trials, in Edward W. Knappman, op. cit., p. 782.

129 Thomas C. Smith, op. cit., loc. cit.

130 Jornal The Boston Globe, 16 de abril de 2003, p. E1 e E8.

131 Os quatro últimos anos poderiam ser suspensos e com bom comportamento Tyson poderia deixar a prisão em liberdade condicional quatro anos depois da condenação.

132 Colin Evans, Myke Tyson Trial, in Edward W. Knappman, op. cit., p. 821 e ss.

133 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 143.

134 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 144.

135 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 225.

136 Bernard Ryan Jr., Ulisses Trial, in Edward W. Knappman, op. cit., p. 368 e ss.

137 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 229.

138 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 231.

139 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 536.

140 Edward M. Wise, op. cit., p. 144.

141 Joshua Dressler, op. cit., p. 192.

142 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 538.

143 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 539.

144 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 540.

145 Thurman Arnold, The Criminal Trial as a Symbol, in Yale Kamisar, Fred E. Inbau e Thurman Arnold, Criminal Justice in our Time, p. 159.

146 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 541.

147 Necessidade econômica não justifica crime no direito penal norte-americano. William Burnham, op. cit., p. 542.

148 William Burnham, op. cit., loc. cit.

149 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 549.

150 William Burnham, op. cit., p. 551 e 552.

151 Julia E. Johnsen, Capital Punishment, p. 6.

152 Julia E. Johnsen, op. cit., p. 11.

153 Allan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind, p. 47.

154 408 U.S. 238 (1972).

155 428 U.S. 153 (1976).

156 Barry Latzer, Death Penalty Cases, p. 235.

157 Harvey Wallace e Cliff Roberson, op. cit., p. 74.

158 Dewey Gram, The Life of David Gale.

159 Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.

160 Roberto Mangabeira Unger, Law in Modern Society.


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GODOY, Arnaldo Sampaio de Moraes. Direito penal nos Estados Unidos - Página 2/2. Jus Navigandi, Teresina, ano 12, n. 1481, 22 jul. 2007. Disponível em: <http://jus.com.br/artigos/10179>. Acesso em: 26 ago. 2014.


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